Sequential super-stereotypy of an instinctive fixed action pattern in hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice: a model of obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette's
© Berridge et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2005
Received: 11 October 2004
Accepted: 14 February 2005
Published: 14 February 2005
Excessive sequential stereotypy of behavioral patterns (sequential super-stereotypy) in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to involve dysfunction in nigrostriatal dopamine systems. In sequential super-stereotypy, patients become trapped in overly rigid sequential patterns of action, language, or thought. Some instinctive behavioral patterns of animals, such as the syntactic grooming chain pattern of rodents, have sufficiently complex and stereotyped serial structure to detect potential production of overly-rigid sequential patterns. A syntactic grooming chain is a fixed action pattern that serially links up to 25 grooming movements into 4 predictable phases that follow 1 syntactic rule. New mutant mouse models allow gene-based manipulation of brain function relevant to sequential patterns, but no current animal model of spontaneous OCD-like behaviors has so far been reported to exhibit sequential super-stereotypy in the sense of a whole complex serial pattern that becomes stronger and excessively rigid. Here we used a hyper-dopaminergic mutant mouse to examine whether an OCD-like behavioral sequence in animals shows sequential super-stereotypy. Knockdown mutation of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT) causes extracellular dopamine levels in the neostriatum of these adult mutant mice to rise to 170% of wild-type control levels.
We found that the serial pattern of this instinctive behavioral sequence becomes strengthened as an entire entity in hyper-dopaminergic mutants, and more resistant to interruption. Hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice have stronger and more rigid syntactic grooming chain patterns than wild-type control mice. Mutants showed sequential super-stereotypy in the sense of having more stereotyped and predictable syntactic grooming sequences, and were also more likely to resist disruption of the pattern en route, by returning after a disruption to complete the pattern from the appropriate point in the sequence. By contrast, wild-type mice exhibited weaker forms of the fixed action pattern, and often failed to complete the full sequence.
Sequential super-stereotypy occurs in the complex fixed action patterns of hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice. Elucidation of the basis for sequential super-stereotypy of instinctive behavior in DAT knockdown mutant mice may offer insights into neural mechanisms of overly-rigid sequences of action or thought in human patients with disorders such as Tourette's or OCD.
Overly rigid sequential patterns of movement and thought characterize several human brain disorders involving dysfunction in basal ganglia systems (i.e. dopamine nigrostriatal projections to the neostriatum and related brain structures). For example, pathological repetitions of spoken words in Tourette's syndrome, and the tormenting habits and thoughts of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), involve overly rigid sequential patterns of action, language or thought [1–9], which in part may be influenced by genetic factors [10–13].
Normal sequential patterns of action, language and thought also have been suggested to depend on proper basal ganglia function [14, 15]. For example, Marsden proposed that "The sequencing of motor action and the sequencing of thought could be a uniform function carried out by the basal ganglia" , and a variety of computational models have been proposed to carry out the general sequencing functions of basal ganglia [16–19]. According to this view, basal ganglia systems evolved originally to coordinate syntactic patterns of instinctive movements, and were extended subsequently by natural selection to participate in sequencing cognitive and linguistic functions as well.
Almost all behavior is sequential, so what do we mean by 'syntactic sequence'? In the simplest terms, a syntactic sequence is one that follows normative rules that determine the temporal progression of its elements and impart a lawful predictability to the sequence as a whole [14, 20, 21]. Human language has real syntax, as the prototypical example, complete with recursive generative rules [14, 21, 22]. But other behavior can be described as having properties of syntax too, if the behavioral flow is governed by lawful sequential patterns that follow normative rules to produce a complex serial order [14, 20, 23–26].
The firing of some basal ganglia neurons in neostriatum and in substantia nigra codes the serial pattern of syntactic grooming chains as an entire sequence in rats [27, 28]. In addition, the integrity of basal ganglia neurons is necessary for normal sequential stereotypy of the instinctive pattern. For example, after lesions of neostriatum, rats lose the ability to complete the 4-phase pattern properly (especially after lesions of anterior dorsolateral neostriatum, which contains the neurons that particularly code the syntactic pattern), even though the lesions do not impair constituent grooming movements [27, 36]. Similar deficits in grooming syntax are caused by disruption of dopamine neurotransmission in mice lacking dopamine D1 receptors , and in normal rats with neostriatal dopamine depletion caused by 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of nigrostriatal projections .
Brain lesions that disrupt behavioral sequences indicate a potential sequencing function for the targeted structures. However, factors besides sequencing loss may contribute to disrupted serial patterns after lesions. An alternative and stronger proof for dopamine mediation of action syntax would be to demonstrate enhanced stereotypy of behavioral sequences, by boosting nigrostriatal dopamine neurotransmission. Enhanced sequential stereotypy would be reflected if the complex serial pattern as a whole entity became more sequentially rigid or persistent. Indeed, in rats, pharmacological boosting by dopamine D1 agonists administered systemically or into brain ventricles produces sequential super-stereotypy of syntactic grooming chains [43–45]. In a state of sequential super-stereotypy, the stereotyped pattern becomes even more predictable than normal, which is evident as an increase in the probability that all four phases will be completed in syntactic order [43, 44]. Such rigidity of complex multiple-phase sequences contrasts with simpler repetition stereotypies (e.g., associated with D2 receptor activation), in which the same movement is repeated over and over again [46–50].
In human pathologies such as Tourette's or OCD, complex sequential super-stereotypy often occurs spontaneously in human patients. If sequential super-stereotypy of complex instinctive behavior sequences is to serve as a model of human disorders involving sequential super-stereotypy, it ought to be able to occur spontaneously in some individual animals too. In addition, it should possess features of compulsive behavioral sequences.
Compulsive behavior may have several features, including both perseverative tendencies and more rigid sequences of entire serial patterns. To date, prior genetically-modified mouse models of spontaneous compulsive behavior have successfully captured the perseverative feature, but it is not yet clear whether these animal models also share the exaggerated serial pattern feature of compulsive behavior. For example, the Hoxb8 lox mutant model has been reported to exhibit OCD-like increased persistence of self-directed grooming and body-licking, and even mutual grooming of other mice [13, 51, 52]. Similarly, the D1CT mutant mouse, caused by transgenic potentiation of D1-associated brain circuits, shows OCD-like persistence of grooming, as well as persistence of other behaviors such as digging, climbing, and tics [3, 53–57]. However, it is unknown whether these or any other animal models also show excessively rigid sequences, in the sense of a stronger multi-element and rule-governed sequence that becomes more rigid as a single complex pattern. For modeling the serial rigidity feature of OCD or Tourette's, an animal model is needed that spontaneously produces an overly-rigid and serially-complex sequence of behavior, such as a syntactic grooming chain.
Here we show that this serial pattern feature of sequential super-stereotypy indeed appears spontaneously without drugs in DAT-KD mutant mice with genetic knockdown of the dopamine transporter (DAT) . DAT-KD mutant mice have 10% normal DAT expression in dopamine neurons , which impairs synaptic re-uptake of dopamine, resulting in elevated (170%) levels of extracellular dopamine in neostriatum (wild-type mice = 100%) . DAT-KD mutant mice show other behavioral evidence for high levels of dopamine activation. They tend to be hyperactive, to walk in perseverative straight paths, and to over-pursue certain incentive stimuli [58–60]. The question asked in the present study was whether these mutant mice would also show sequential super-stereotypy in their syntactic chains – that is, do they have excessively rigid serial patterns of instinctive grooming behavior?
Syntactic grooming chains
The sequential pattern of a syntactic grooming chain contains up to 25 movements serially combined into 4 syntactic or rule-governed phases that form one chain pattern  (Figure 1; see Additional movie file 1). Each of the 4 phases contains recursive repetitions of its particular component movement.
Phase I consists of 5–10 rapid elliptical forepaw strokes made with both paws simultaneously over the nose and mystacial vibrissae. In mice, Phase I ellipses are often slightly asymmetrical and alternating, in the sense that the 'major paw' makes a slightly larger stroke than the 'minor paw' . Typically, the major/minor role alternates over successive Phase I strokes between left and right paws. The entire Phase I lasts for about one second.
Phase II is short (0.25 s) and consists of 1–4 unilateral or highly asymmetrical strokes made by one forepaw. The unilateral stroke is typically of small or medium amplitude ascending to about the level of the eye. In mice, the other paw not participating in the Phase II stroke often makes a smaller Phase-I ellipse-type stroke simultaneously [37, 41]. Thus, Phase II in mice typically contains several hybrid Phase I-II strokes, in contrast to rats, which move only a single forepaw . Mice generally alternate between left and right paws in making Phase II strokes (though sometimes the same paw repeats a short series of Phase II strokes).
Phase III is highly visually distinctive, and consists of 1–5 large bilateral strokes with both paws. Both paws move very symmetrically almost as mirror images of the other, typically ascending together high up the side of the face, and passing forward synchronously over the ears. Phase III strokes are extremely stereotyped, usually all of the same height, and with both paws traveling back down to the nose between successive Phase III strokes . The entire Phase III lasts 1–3 s.
Phase IV concludes the prototypical chain, and consists of a postural turn to the side and caudally, and lowering of the head to bring the tongue towards the flank or side of the body, followed immediately by a 2–5 s bout of body licking directed to the flank.
Syntactic Initiation: rate of starting chains
The nature of the context-dependence of the difference was further clarified by a closer look at the time course of exactly when syntactic chains were begun by mice during a grooming bout. The overwhelming majority of syntactic chains tended to be initiated early in a grooming bout by all mice (Figure 4). Mutants initiated up to twice as many chains as wild-type mice per minute of grooming in the first quarter of a bout, whereas by the last quarter of their grooming bouts mutant and wildtype initiation rates no longer differed significantly (Figure 4). Mutants tended to begin more grooming bouts than wild-type mice especially in the laboratory (described below), which may have facilitated the mutants' greater tendency to initiate the syntactic chain pattern in the laboratory (Figure 4). In short, syntactic chains were initiated early in a grooming bout by all mice, but mutant mice were even more likely than wild-type mice to initiate chains during those early portions of a grooming bout, and the mutant advantage was greatest in the laboratory environment (which might be the most stressful environment).
In mice and rats, once a syntactic chain pattern begins with Phase I, each remaining action can be predicted with roughly 80–90% accuracy. The entire syntactic chain occurs with a frequency over ten thousand times greater than could be expected by chance (based upon the relative probabilities of the component actions). However, several types or degrees of chain completion are possible.
Types of syntactic chains
A prototypical or perfect syntactic chain requires Phases I, II, III and IV in order, with no deviations, additions or omissions. Perfect chains were occasionally performed by both mutant and wildtype mice. After performing Phase I, II and III strokes over the face, a mouse performs Phase IV by transitioning to body grooming. For this transition to body licking, the mouse must bend down and backward to bring its mouth toward a side flank, and then begin a vigorous bout of body licking that continues for 1–4 s.
In addition, several types of imperfect syntactic chains were observed in both mutant and wildtype mice. Imperfect sequences proceed from Phase I to IV with some minor deviation from the prototypical pattern along the way. In this study, we recognized three forms of imperfect completion. All involved a minor imperfection, which was either an insertion, reversal or replacement of a component action within the syntactic chain. Imperfect completion forms were: (i) Reversal of Phases II-III, where Phase II unilateral strokes were emitted after Phase III bilateral strokes (instead of before them), but the chain was otherwise syntactically correct; (ii) Insertion of an unexpected movement component in between phases, usually a quick paw lick or several paw licks inserted between Phases III and IV; (iii) Skip or omission of one phase en route to completion, where a chain lacked either any Phase II unilateral face stroke, or any Phase III face strokes (never both), but was otherwise syntactically correct (e.g. an observed order of I-III-IV). Finally, a fourth type of syntactic chain was observed that failed to be completed in the prototypical sense, but where the mice substituted paw licking in the terminal place of Phase IV (which might provisionally be regarded as an "attempt" to complete syntactically). We called this Terminal substitution: the final Phase IV component (body licking) was completely replaced with a different type of licking movement (paw licking), and the chain was otherwise syntactically correct (e.g. I-II-III-paw lick bout).
Terminal substitution never attains a prototypical Phase IV, and so is not really a form of syntactic completion by criteria used in earlier studies. However, the terminal substitution of paw licking might be viewed as an attempt to complete syntactically with a transition from paw strokes to licking, compared to other forms of incompletion such as either simply stopping or immediately launching into a sequentially flexible series of grooming strokes. Thus for the purpose of analysis, we examined the consequences of allowing terminal substitution to count provisionally as a form of "weak" completion.
At the completion of Phase IV (strong or weak), over 93% of syntactic chains led to continued grooming of body or face in sequentially flexible and much less predictable patterns compared to syntactic chains. After 7% of chains, the end of Phase IV terminated the entire grooming bout, and the mouse rested quietly afterwards or began to explore the chamber.
Syntactic rigidity: strength of pattern completion
DAT-KD mutant mice not only started more syntactic chain patterns, they were also more likely than wild-type mice to complete the syntactic chain patterns they started – in both laboratory and home environments (Figures 2 &3). Sequential super-stereotypy (i.e. more predictable and stereotyped completion of entire sequence) of DAT-KD mutant mice was the most consistent and robust finding of our study (F(1,78) = 12.33, p < 0.001; Figure 2).
The higher syntactic rigidity of mutants was visible qualitatively and verified quantitatively (Figures 2 &3), and it interacted with the various types of syntactic completion described above (interaction between mutant/wildtype × perfect/imperfect types: F(4,184) = 5.96, p < 0.001). Hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice nearly always completed their syntactic chains with the strong form of Phase IV (body licking), whereas wild-type mice completed roughly half their chains with only the weaker form of Phase IV (paw licking). Mutant mice completed a higher percentage of insertion, reversal and omission types of syntactic chains than wild-type mice (F(4, 184) = 129.01, p < 0.001; each subtype; Figures 2 &3). These stronger or more rigid chains of mutant mice more closely corresponded to the prototypical 4-phase syntax pattern (including the prototypical terminal Phase IV component: body licking).
In other words, mutant mice were better than wild-type mice at resisting disruption of the pattern by minor flaws that occurred along the way, and mutants more often returned to the full-blown pattern after any distraction. For example, insertion chains included 1 or 2 extraneous movements, such as a nonsyntactic paw lick action inserted between Phases III and IV. After an insertion, mutants were nearly 50% more likely than wild-type mice to reach a strong form of Phase IV completion (mutant vs. wildtype, p < 0.01, Bonferroni). Similarly, a reversal error reversed the serial order of Phases II and III, or followed a Phase II stroke with a late Phase I ellipse stroke, and after a reversal mutant mice were nearly 50% more likely than wild-type mice to go on to complete a strong form of Phase IV. Finally, in an omission chain, a mouse would omit either Phase II or Phase III (never both), and after an omission mutants were again roughly 50% more likely than wild-type mice to successfully return to the full pattern and reach a strong form of terminal Phase IV completion (each p < 0.01, Bonferroni).
In contrast, wild-type mice had a greater proportion of terminal substitution chains that never achieved a full syntactic transition to body grooming. Wild-type mice instead substituted a weaker paw-lick form of Phase IV as terminal component. In terminal substitution, a mouse completely omitted the normal Phase IV shift to body licking, and instead simply continued to lick its paws, never changing posture or moving its head caudally out of the normal facial grooming position (the complete failure of transition to body licking after paw licking marked the difference between Insertion and Terminal Substitution chains). Wild-type mice had nearly twice the proportion of terminal substitutions as mutant mice (F(1,78)= 11.47, p < 0.001).
If terminal substitution is regarded as failure to complete the pattern, then wild-type mice simply failed to complete over half the syntactic chains they began. More leniently, wild-type mice could approach an 80% – 90% rate of syntactic completion – if we took the unprecedented step of allowing Phase IV terminal substitution to count as weak completion (Figure 2). Allowing this weaker criterion was the only way to consider wild-type mice able to achieve the 80%–90% syntactic completion level that mutant mice successfully achieved through the stronger prototypical form of Phase IV.
In summary, DAT-KD mutant mice had more rigid sequential patterns than wild-type controls in several ways. Mutant mice were more likely than wild-type mice to proceed syntactically through Phases I, II and/or III to reach the syntactic final Phase IV (body licking). Even after encountering minor imperfections along the way, mutants persevered in the sequential pattern. Wild-type mice introduced the same imperfections in their syntactic pattern, but did not return to the full pattern or complete Phase IV as strongly, ending their chains without ever reaching the full-blown transition to body grooming that normally terminates a syntactic chain pattern.
Finally, syntactic completion was highest in home environment grooming for all mice (even though more syntactic chains were begun in laboratory) (F(1,78)14.31, p < 0.001). This difference suggests that stress may promote the initiation of stereotyped sequences, but impede their lawful completion, and is consistent with reports that stress disrupts completion of syntactic chain sequences . However, mutant mice were equally more likely than wild-type mice to complete strong patterns in both laboratory and home environments.
Motor control for movement capacity
In order to reject motor confounds that might have provided an alternative explanation of some results, we assessed whether wild-type mice were simply less able to perform body licking movements than mutant mice. If wild-type mice had motor deficits that impaired their ability to perform body-lick posture/movements, then wild-types might have had weakened syntactic chains simply because of their motor incapacity to perform Phase IV movements, rather than because mutants had stronger sequencing tendencies. Therefore we analyzed whether wild-type mice spent a lower proportion of their total grooming behavior time making body licking movements compared to mutant mice. However, wild-type mice did not have significantly lower total cumulative duration scores for body licking overall than mutant mice (F(1,78) = 0.56, n.s.), indicating there was no motor impairment of Phase IV movements. That suggests the difference in tendency to complete syntactic chains represents a true difference in sequence rigidity or pattern strength, and not in simple motor capacity.
Overall grooming behavior: amount, bout number, and bout duration
Closer analysis of grooming compared the relative contributions to increased grooming time of greater bout numbers versus longer bout durations (Figure 2). The increased time spent grooming by mutant mice in the home cage was due to longer grooming bouts (but not to a greater number of bouts) compared to wild-type mice. In their home cages, grooming bouts in mutant mice were 80% longer than in wild-type mice (F(1,86) = 4.083, p = 0.008), while bout numbers did not differ.
Although mutants emitted only marginally more body licking than wild-type mice in an analysis that combined data from both home and laboratory environments (F(1,60) = 3.403, p < 0.07), a separate analysis of grooming specifically in the home cage showed that mutants at home had longer cumulative durations of body licking (p < 0.05, Bonferroni), consistent with prolongation of the later components of cephalocaudal grooming bouts in that home environment . However, as a percentage of total grooming, the proportion of mutant body licking to facial stroke components was not higher than for wild-type mice, either overall (F(1,60) = 0.58, n.s.), or even in the home cage (p = 0.32), which suggests that the mutants' longer grooming bouts in the home cage may also have included more facial strokes than wild-type mice. Thus, longer mutant grooming bouts in the home cage likely involved expansion of several components of grooming, including longer body licking bouts and facial strokes. These perseverative features of DAT-KD mutant grooming in the home cage therefore may overlap with perseverative body grooming tendencies reported for other genetic animal models of compulsive behavior, such as Hoxb8 lox and D1CT mutant mice [13, 51–53, 55, 57].
Conversely, in the laboratory environment, DAT-KD mutants' higher grooming was chiefly due to a greater number of grooming bouts (but not longer bouts). In the laboratory environment, mutants began more grooming bouts than wild-type mice (F(1,86) = 3.478, p = 0.026), but their duration of bouts did not differ. Thus, different features of grooming bouts (length versus number) were enhanced in mutant mice depending on their environmental context of the moment. However, as described above, in both home and laboratory the hyper-dopaminergic mutants were always more likely than wild-type mice to perform more rigid and strongly stereotyped syntactic chain sequences.
Sequential super-stereotypy: pattern completion
Our results reveal that hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice show excessively strong and rigid manifestations of a complex fixed action pattern compared to wild-type mice. Their sequential super-stereotypy was produced by DAT knockdown mutation, which reduces DAT to 10% of wild-type levels and causes extracellular dopamine elevation to 170% in neostriatum . Mutant mice showed more stereotyped and predictable syntactic grooming chains, the instinctive fixed action pattern that serially links up to 25 movements into 4 predictable phases that follow 1 syntactic rule. That entire pattern became even more stereotyped and resistant to disruption in hyper-dopaminergic mutant mice.
The stronger pattern was evident in several ways. First, DAT-KD mutant mice were more likely to begin a syntactic chain pattern than wild-type mice, especially during the early minutes of a grooming bout (when the highly stereotyped serial pattern is most likely to be produced), and especially in the novel laboratory environment (a potential stressor). Further, once the complex sequence began, DAT-KD mutant mice went on to execute chains that were more stereotyped and rigid, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitatively, mutant mice almost always achieved the strongest form of the terminal phase (Phase IV), successfully making a transition from head grooming to body grooming. By comparison, wild-type mice ended far more of their chains with a weaker terminal substitution for Phase IV, which left them stuck in head grooming without ever making a transition to body grooming. Quantitatively, DAT-KD mutant mice returned more often to the prototypical pattern after minor mistakes, whereas wild-type mice failed to reach full Phase IV after such mistakes. Mutant mice returned more often to the full pattern after extraneous component insertion, phase omission, or serial reversal of phases. The mutants' elevated pattern strength for this complex sequence was evident in both home and laboratory environmental contexts.
If the less-stereotyped sequential patterns of wild-type mice are viewed as the norm (and not as a sequential deficit), then the mutant tendency to complete stronger syntactic patterns must be viewed as sequential super-stereotypy, representing the exaggerated serial rigidity feature of compulsive behavior. Here sequential super-stereotypy is manifest in a complex behavioral sequence that is instinctive and naturally stereotyped to begin with, but becomes even more stereotyped or excessively rigid as a consequence of the DAT mutation.
It may be important that the mutant pattern strength is revealed not as an elimination of errors, but rather primarily as a resistance to disruption by errors. In other words, mutants did not have more frequent perfect chains than wild-types: both generated similar moderate rates of minor errors (e.g., inserting extra actions, omitting one syntactic phase from where it ought to be, or reversing the order of 2 phases in the 4-phase pattern). Instead, the mutants' stronger syntactic pattern was like a tightened elastic band, pulling them back after such errors to finish the prototypical pattern. Stronger return to the pattern could only be possible if DAT knockdown strengthened the entire pattern as a global whole, facilitating the mutants' ability to maintain a neural representation of the pattern during an error and to resume the remaining pattern after the error. That suggests that neural mechanisms of pattern coordination were better able to persist in rule maintenance in the face of disruption, and to successfully compete to re-establish control of the behavioral stream after the disruption.
Thus, stronger patterns were not simply the results of strengthened Markov sequential transitions among individual pairs of actions, producing a stimulus-response (S-R) reflex chain. If sequence composition was simply a probabilistic construction based only on the frequency of transitions between individual pairs of actions, then stronger perfect completion might have been expected in mutants, but not stronger return after an error. Errors would still terminate or weaken the pattern. Instead, we observed the opposite result: mutants kept errors but recovered better after them, and took the full pattern up again where it had left off.
Relation to other nigrostriatal manipulations and behaviors
These results are the first demonstration to our knowledge of sequential super-stereotypy of a complex behavioral pattern, occurring spontaneously without drugs. In previous studies, dopamine D1 agonists were needed to cause sequential super-stereotypy of syntactic grooming chains, whereas D2 agonists in contrast reduced initiation and completion of syntactic grooming chains (even though D2 agonists can cause simple repetitive movement stereotypies) [43–45, 64]. Future studies will be needed to confirm whether the sequential super-stereotypy of DAT knockdown mutant mice depends specifically on increased D1 receptor activation. However, it is notable that there is a consistent trend of D1 circuit-activation inducing OCD-like behavioral persistence in D1 agonist-treated rodents, D1-circuit potentiated D1CT mice, and hyperdopaminergic DAT-KD mice [43–45, 53, 55, 57, 64]. This suggests that the D1 circuit may play an important role in features of compulsive behavior related to perseveration and sequential rigidity. It also would be of interest for future studies to examine if other animal models of perseverant grooming behavior, such as Hoxb8 lox and D1CT mutant mice, also show any exaggerated serial rigidity features in their fixed action patterns similar to those found here [13, 51, 53–55, 57, 65]. Finally, it would clearly be of interest to examine whether any other instinctive fixed action patterns belonging to those of DAT-KD mutant mice show sequential super-stereotypy similar to syntactic grooming chains.
We should note that although our study is the first to produce spontaneous sequential super-stereotypy, several previous studies reported weakening of the syntactic chain pattern by other genetic manipulations. For example, the ability to complete syntactic grooming chains is impaired in several types of mutant mouse, caused by either a knockout of D1 dopamine receptors , or by a Weaver gene mutation that alters the nigrostriatal dopamine system [65, 66]. In the D1 knockout study, mutant D1 mice were less able than wild-type mice to complete the full grooming pattern of syntactic chains they started . Our DAT-KD findings provide an opposite demonstration to complement that D1 knockout study: DAT knockdown strengthens the same pattern presumably by elevating extra-cellular dopamine. Both results might therefore reflect essentially linear effects on the sequential stereotypy of this complex behavior pattern, mirroring up or down changes in basal ganglia dopamine neurotransmission.
Evolution co-opts sequential super-stereotypy
We acknowledge that there is one other known form of genetically-related sequential super-stereotypy for syntactic grooming chains. However, that sequential super-stereotypy is not caused by a single targeted gene mutation but rather is a naturally evolved adaptation of the fixed action pattern in a species of ground squirrel, Spermophilus beecheyi , which is probably polygenic in origin. California ground squirrels defend their individual mating territories in the Sierra mountains against other same-sex ground squirrels (especially males against other males). One of their behavioral territory displays is a specialized exapted form of the syntactic grooming chain .
Display forms of Spermophilus beecheyi syntactic chains are ritualized, more sequentially rigid and predictable than normal self-grooming chains, and occur as a single grooming chain with no other grooming before or after . Phase III elements are amplified and made more visually distinctive, and an extra Phase V component is appended to the end of the pattern (the squirrel seizes and licks its tail, which is also visually distinctive). Syntactic grooming chains are usually performed at the boundary where two adjacent territories meet. Syntactic grooming chain displays appear to be communicative, in that they are emitted in conjunction with other territorial displays, such as scent-marking of objects, and have the social consequence of subsequently reducing the likelihood of a physical fight between the two adversaries .
Thus the evolution of Spermophilus beecheyi ground squirrels appears to have exapted the pre-existing pattern of a syntactic grooming chain, which likely evolved in ancestral rodents over 60 million years ago, and co-opted it into a sequentially super-stereotyped form for specific communicative use . It may have been selected because of the same feature that led us to study syntactic chains, namely its recognizable sequential stereotypy. Also, the sequential pattern appears highly sensitive to the underlying genotype; for example, the detailed 'signature patterns' of the syntactic grooming chains that distinguish mice from squirrels, rats, guinea pigs and other rodents can be used to construct taxonomic trees of relatedness for them (similar to taxonomies based on differences in skull structure or in DNA sequences) . The genetic sensitivity of the pattern may explain why evolutionary selection exploited it for use by California ground squirrels, and also explain why knockdown of a single gene can change the strength of the entire complex sequential pattern in studies such as ours [41, 65, 66].
Neural systems and clinical implications of sequential super-stereotypy
Altered neurochemical signaling within basal ganglia neural circuits may be the mechanism by which DAT knockdown produces sequential super-stereotypy of grooming syntax. Electrophysiological studies have shown that neurons in neostriatum and in substantia nigra pars reticulata code the sequential pattern of syntactic grooming chains and other natural sequences of behavior [24, 27, 28]. For example, 40% of neostriatal neurons in rats code sequential aspects of the syntactic chain pattern, especially in anterior dorsolateral neostriatum [24, 27]. Neurochemical boosting of dopamine signalling from substantia nigra pars compacta on to neostriatal neurons might be one candidate mechanism to modulate sequential super-stereotypy of the pattern in DAT-KD mutants. Similarly, neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata appear especially to code initiations of the complex behavioral sequence, and so modulated input to them might be more relevant to the elevated mutant tendency to begin the syntactic pattern [24, 28].
Nigrostriatal mechanisms for sequencing instinctive action may have been co-opted in subsequent mammalian and human evolution into use in sequencing learned and cognitive psychological elements [67–69]. In that way, the same basal ganglia mechanisms used for movement syntax may participate in sequential habits that result from learning [20, 29, 70–72]. A view of basal ganglia as a general purpose sequencing mechanism is compatible also with computational sequencing models of basal ganglia [16–19]. Beyond the basal ganglia, DAT-KD mutant mice might also have elevated extra-cellular dopamine concentrations in other target structures, including prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Such systems might also contribute to OCD and Tourette's syndromes in humans and to some aspects of compulsive-like behavior in mutant mice. Elaborated applications of dopamine-related circuits for sequencing may thus extend from instinctive animal behavior to abstract human cognition and behavior, including syntactic sequencing of action plans, linguistic syntax, and the serial order of streams of thought [14, 73].
A clinical implication of the embeddedness of basal ganglia in sequencing function may be a vulnerability to sequential dysfunction in some human disorders involving nigrostriatal systems [74, 75]. Both Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder show symptoms of sequential super-stereotypy, in the form of overly rigid patterns of action, language or thought [76, 77]. Basal ganglia are believed to be involved in generating such pathologically-strong and complex sequential stereotypies [1, 2, 8, 9, 74, 78–85]. Hyper-dopaminergic function in nigrostriatal and related neural systems might thus play a role in causing the excessive rigidity of behavioral tics, repetitive language utterances, and obsessive chains of thought [2, 74, 79, 81, 86, 87].
Finally, while highly speculative, it is at least conceivable that an evolutionary specialization of dopamine-related neural mechanisms for self-grooming sequences, suggested by our current results, might also influence the theme or content, as well as the syntactic stereotypy, of some human super-stereotypies involving washing or purifying compulsions .
Pathologically-intense rituals of cleanliness, security behavior, or concerns with contamination, all share a focus that might relate to grooming of oneself . Conceivably, excessive activation in brain circuits linked by evolution to self-grooming behavior might tip the thematic focus of some human stereotyped sequences toward rituals of cleanliness or reaction to perceived contamination, in addition to strengthening their syntactic rigidity. Whether or not such a direct overlap exists between human pathology and animal instinctive behavior, our results indicate that DAT-KD mutant mice show sequential super-stereotypy in a complex instinctive fixed action pattern.
DAT-KD mutant mice (n = 12 male) and wild-type control mice (n = 12 male) were generated at the University of Chicago by breeding heterozygous mutants on a 129 Sv/J genetic background as described earlier . Such a design minimizes any contribution to behavioral phenotype by genetic background difference or by differences in genetic modifiers that are linked to the Slc6a3 locus. DAT knockdown was achieved by insertion of the tetracycline regulatable system into the 5' untranslated region in the second exon of the DAT gene (Slc6a3). Such an insertion reduced the DAT promoter strength without affecting its expression pattern. It also allows regulation of DAT expression by dietary tetracycline, although that feature was not used in this study. DAT knockdown reduces adult DAT expression to 10% of wild-type levels and raises extracellular dopamine levels in neostriatum to 170% (wild-type control = 100%) . Once housed at the University of Michigan, mutant and wild-type mice (age 2–4 months) were allowed to habituate to their new surroundings for two weeks before any behavioral testing. Mice were housed at ~21°C on a 12 h light/dark cycle with lights on at 7 a.m., in groups of two to three same-type individuals during the laboratory environment testing phase. During the home cage testing phase of the experiments, mice were housed individually to facilitate videotaping. Food (Purina Rat Chow; St. Louis, MO) and water (tap water) were always available.
It was important to determine whether any sequential stereotypy difference between mutant and wild-type mice in grooming behavior was a stable difference in action syntax strength, and not merely an artifact of testing conditions. Grooming behavior of rodents is sensitive to environmental contexts, both in quantity and in fine structure, and stressors in particular can either suppress or increase grooming behavior depending on type . All mice were therefore tested for grooming behavior in 2 environmental contexts: 1) a standard behavioral neuroscience laboratory chamber, and 2) their own home cages (a relatively stress-free environment).
Immediately prior to testing, mice were transported in their home cage on a cart down a 30 m hallway to a laboratory testing room with standard white fluorescent lighting, and placed individually in a test chamber (light intensity 550–650 lux; sound intensity 65–70 decibels measured within chamber). The laboratory test chamber consisted of a transparent cylinder (19 cm high, 12.5 cm diameter) suspended over a tilted mirror. A camera lens focused on this mirror gave a close-up view of the mouse's face, forepaws, and upper body. For behavioral testing, each mouse was placed individually in a test chamber and videotaped for 30 minutes. Each mouse received 3 habituation days in the laboratory test procedure before grooming behavior data were collected over the next 2 consecutive days in 30 min sessions.
Testing in the home environment took place during the dark phase under dim red light conditions. Mice were housed singly in transparent rectangular cages (12 cm high × 19 cm long × 10 cm wide). Videotaping of grooming sequences took place from the side of the transparent home cage, for 30 min each day on 2 consecutive days, with the camera focused closely on the mouse.
Behavioral video analysis
Videotaped grooming behavior was scored in slow motion (frame-by-frame to 1/10th actual speed; scorer blind to genotype) for grooming amount (cumulative durations), grooming bout number and bout length, and occurrence of syntactic chains. Syntactic grooming chains were identified and classified in frame-by-frame analysis as either Perfect, Imperfect but completed by full Phase IV (omission, insertion, or reversal types), Terminal substitution of paw lick for Phase IV body licking, or Incomplete (grooming stops before Phase IV, or reverts to sequentially flexible facial grooming and paw strokes) [37, 41], [43, 44]. We also made choreograph diagrams of syntactic chains from each mouse to compare details of their form and sequential pattern . Behavioral data were statistically analyzed by 3-factor, 2-factor, or 1-factor ANOVA as indicated above. When significant results were obtained, post hoc paired comparisons were subsequently performed using Bonferroni or Tukey tests (alpha set equal to original 0.05 level).
We thank Dr. Roger Albin for helpful discussion of issues presented here, Dr. Susana Peciña for assistance in preparing the figures, Ben Long for assistance with data scoring, and anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant IBN 0091661, National Institutes of Health Grants MH63649 and DA015188, the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression, and the Tourette Syndrome Association.
- Albin RL, Koeppe RA, Bohnen NI, Nichols TE, Meyer P, Wernette K, Minoshima S, Kilbourn MR, Frey KA: Increased ventral striatal monoaminergic innervation in Tourette syndrome. Neurology. 2003, 61 (3): 310-315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Albin RL: Neurobiology of Basal Ganglia and Tourette Syndrome: Striatal and Dopamine Function. Tourette Syndrome. Edited by: Walkup J. New York: Raven PressGoogle Scholar
- Nordstrom EJ, Burton FH: A transgenic model of comorbid Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder circuitry. Mol Psychiatry. 2002, 7 (6): 617-625. 10.1038/sj.mp.4001144. 524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim CH, Koo MS, Cheon KA, Ryu YH, Lee JD, Lee HS: Dopamine transporter density of basal ganglia assessed with [123I]IPT SPET in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2003, 30 (12): 1637-1643. 10.1007/s00259-003-1245-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rauch SL, Whalen PJ, Curran T, Shin LM, Coffey BJ, Savage CR, McInerney SC, Baer L, Jenike MA: Probing striato-thalamic function in obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome using neuroimaging methods. Adv Neurol. 2001, 85: 207-224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peterson BS, Thomas P, Kane MJ, Scahill L, Zhang H, Bronen R, King RA, Leckman JF, Staib L: Basal Ganglia volumes in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003, 60 (4): 415-424. 10.1001/archpsyc.60.4.415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krause KH, Dresel S, Krause J, Kung HF, Tatsch K, Lochmuller H: Elevated striatal dopamine transporter in a drug naive patient with Tourette syndrome and attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: positive effect of methylphenidate. J Neurol. 2002, 249 (8): 1116-1118. 10.1007/s00415-002-0746-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saka E, Graybiel AM: Pathophysiology of Tourette's syndrome: striatal pathways revisited. Brain Dev. 2003, 25 (Suppl 1): S15-19. 10.1016/S0387-7604(03)90002-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Graybiel AM, Rauch SL: Toward a neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuron. 2000, 28 (2): 343-347. 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00113-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grados MA, Walkup J, Walford S: Genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorders: new findings and challenges. Brain Dev. 2003, 25 (Suppl 1): S55-61. 10.1016/S0387-7604(03)90010-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pato MT, Pato CN, Pauls DL: Recent findings in the genetics of OCD. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002, 63 (Suppl 6): 30-33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Diaz-Anzaldua A, Joober R, Riviere JB, Dion Y, Lesperance P, Richer F, Chouinard S, Rouleau GA: Tourette syndrome and dopaminergic genes: a family-based association study in the French Canadian founder population. Mol Psychiatry. 2004, 9 (3): 272-277. 10.1038/sj.mp.4001411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Graybiel AM, Saka E: A genetic basis for obsessive grooming. Neuron. 2002, 33 (1): 1-2. 10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00575-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lieberman P: Human language and our reptilian brain: the subcortical bases of speech, syntax, and thought. 2000, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
- Marsden CD: Which motor disorder in Parkinson's disease indicates the true motor function of the basal ganglia?. Functions of the Basal Ganglia. Edited by: Evered D, O'Conner M . 1984, London: Pitman, 225-237.Google Scholar
- Berns GS, Sejnowski TJ: A computational model of how the basal ganglia produce sequences. J Cogn Neurosci. 1998, 10 (1): 108-121. 10.1162/089892998563815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Joel D, Niv Y, Ruppin E: Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives. Neural Netw. 2002, 15 (4–6): 535-547. 10.1016/S0893-6080(02)00047-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ivry RB: The representation of temporal information in perception and motor control. Cur Opin Neurobio. 1996, 6 (6): 851-857. 10.1016/S0959-4388(96)80037-7.Google Scholar
- Beiser DG, Houk JC: Model of cortical-basal ganglionic processing: encoding the serial order of sensory events. J Neurophysiol. 1998, 79 (6): 3168-3188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lashley KS: The problem of serial order in behavior. Cerebral mechanisms of behavior. Edited by: Jefferies LA. 1951, New York: Wiley, 112-136.Google Scholar
- Hauser MD, Chomsky N, Fitch WT: The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve?. Science. 2002, 298 (5598): 1569-1579. 10.1126/science.298.5598.1569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Premack D: Psychology. Is language the key to human intelligence?. Science. 2004, 303 (5656): 318-320. 10.1126/science.1093993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fentress JC, Stilwell FP: Grammar of a movement sequence in inbred mice. Nature. 1973, 244 (5410): 52-53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aldridge JW, Berridge KC, Rosen AR: Basal ganglia neural mechanisms of natural movement sequences. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2004, 82 (8–9): 732-739. 10.1139/y04-061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hamilton DA, Rosenfelt CS, Whishaw IQ: Sequential control of navigation by locale and taxon cues in the Morris water task. Behav Brain Res. 2004, 154 (2): 385-397. 10.1016/j.bbr.2004.03.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aldridge JW: Grooming. The behavior of the laboratory rat: a handbook with tests. Edited by: Whishaw IQ, Kolb B. 2005, New York: Oxford University Press, 141-149.Google Scholar
- Aldridge JW, Berridge KC: Coding of serial order by neostriatal neurons: A "natural action" approach to movement sequence. J Neurosci. 1998, 18 (7): 2777-2787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meyer-Luehmann M, Thompson JF, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW: Substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons code initiation of a serial pattern: implications for natural action sequences and sequential disorders. Eur J Neurosci. 2002, 16 (8): 1599-1608. 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2002.02210.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baxter LR: Basal ganglia systems in ritualistic social displays: reptiles and humans; function and illness. Physiol Behav. 2003, 79 (3): 451-460. 10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00164-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kermadi I, Joseph JP: Activity in the caudate nucleus of monkey during spatial sequencing. J Neurophysiol. 1995, 74 (3): 911-933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Graybiel AM: Building action repertoires: memory and learning functions of the basal ganglia. Cur Opin Neurobio. 1995, 5 (6): 733-741. 10.1016/0959-4388(95)80100-6.Google Scholar
- Schmitzer-Torbert N, Redish AD: Neuronal activity in the rodent dorsal striatum in sequential navigation: separation of spatial and reward responses on the multiple T task. J Neurophysiol. 2004, 91 (5): 2259-2272. 10.1152/jn.00687.2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kimura M, Matsumoto N, Okahashi K, Ueda Y, Satoh T, Minamimoto T, Sakamoto M, Yamada H: Goal-directed, serial and synchronous activation of neurons in the primate striatum. Neuroreport. 2003, 14 (6): 799-802. 10.1097/00001756-200305060-00004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cenci MA, Whishaw IQ, Schallert T: Animal models of neurological deficits: how relevant is the rat?. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002, 3 (7): 574-579. 10.1038/nrn877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berridge KC, Whishaw IQ: Cortex, striatum and cerebellum: Control of serial order in a grooming sequence. Exp Brain Res. 1992, 90 (2): 275-290. 10.1007/BF00227239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cromwell HC, Berridge KC: Implementation of action sequences by a neostriatal site: A lesion mapping study of grooming syntax. J Neurosci. 1996, 16 (10): 3444-3458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berridge KC: Comparative fine structure of action: Rules of form and sequence in the grooming patterns of six rodent species. Behav. 1990, 113 (1–2): 21-56.Google Scholar
- Bursten SN, Berridge KC, Owings DH: Do California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) use ritualized syntactic cephalocaudal grooming as an agonistic signal?. Journal of Comparative Psychology. 2000, 114 (3): 281-290. 10.1037//0735-7036.114.3.281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barlow GB: Ethological units of behavior. Foundations of animal behavior: Classic papers with commentaries. 1996, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 138-153.Google Scholar
- Hinde RA: Animal Behaviour: a synthesis of ethology and comparative psychology,. 1970, London: McGraw-Hill, 2Google Scholar
- Cromwell HC, Berridge KC, Drago J, Levine MS: Action sequencing is impaired in D1A-deficient mutant mice. Euro J Neurosci. 1998, 10 (7): 2426-2432. 10.1046/j.1460-9568.1998.00250.x.Google Scholar
- Berridge KC: Substantia nigra 6-OHDA lesions mimic striatopallidal disruption of syntactic grooming chains: A neural systems analysis of sequence control. Psychobiol. 1989, 17: 377-385.Google Scholar
- Berridge KC, Aldridge JW: Super-stereotypy I: Enhancement of a complex movement sequence by systemic dopamine D1 agonists. Synapse. 2000, 37: 194-204. 10.1002/1098-2396(20000901)37:3<194::AID-SYN3>3.0.CO;2-A.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berridge KC, Aldridge JW: Super-stereotypy II: Enhancement of a complex movement sequence by intraventricular dopamine D1 agonists. Synapse. 2000, 37: 205-215. 10.1002/1098-2396(20000901)37:3<205::AID-SYN4>3.0.CO;2-A.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deveney AM, Waddington JL: Psychopharmacological distinction between novel full-efficacy "D-1-like" dopamine receptor agonists. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997, 58 (2): 551-558. 10.1016/S0091-3057(97)00248-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Delfs JM, Kelley AE: The role of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in oral stereotypy induced by dopaminergic stimulation of the ventrolateral striatum. Neurosci. 1990, 39 (1): 59-67. 10.1016/0306-4522(90)90221-O.Google Scholar
- Kuczenski R, Segal DS: Sensitization of amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviors during the acute response: role of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Brain Res. 1999, 822 (1–2): 164-174. 10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01149-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mittleman G, LeDuc PA, Whishaw IQ: The role of D1 and D2 receptors in the heightened locomotion induced by direct and indirect dopamine agonists in rats with hippocampal damage: an animal analogue of schizophrenia. Behav Brain Res. 1993, 55 (2): 253-267. 10.1016/0166-4328(93)90121-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Capper-Loup C, Canales JJ, Kadaba N, Graybiel AM: Concurrent activation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors is required to evoke neural and behavioral phenotypes of cocaine sensitization. J Neurosci. 2002, 22 (14): 6218-6227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saka E, Goodrich C, Harlan P, Madras BK, Graybiel AM: Repetitive behaviors in monkeys are linked to specific striatal activation patterns. J Neurosci. 2004, 24 (34): 7557-7565. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1072-04.2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greer JM, Capecchi MR: Hoxb8 is required for normal grooming behavior in mice. Neuron. 2002, 33 (1): 23-34. 10.1016/S0896-6273(01)00564-5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reilly CE: Disruption of Hoxb8 gene leads to obsessive grooming behavior. J Neurol. 2002, 249 (4): 499-501. 10.1007/s004150200052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Campbell KM, de Lecea L, Severynse DM, Caron MG, McGrath MJ, Sparber SB, Sun LY, Burton FH: OCD-Like behaviors caused by a neuropotentiating transgene targeted to cortical and limbic D1+ neurons. J Neurosci. 1999, 19 (12): 5044-5053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Campbell KM, McGrath MJ, Burton FH: Behavioral effects of cocaine on a transgenic mouse model of cortical-limbic compulsion. Brain Res. 1999, 833 (2): 216-224. 10.1016/S0006-8993(99)01544-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGrath MJ, Campbell KM, Burton FH: The role of cognitive and affective processing in a transgenic mouse model of cortical-limbic neuropotentiated compulsive behavior. Behav Neurosci. 1999, 113 (6): 1249-1256. 10.1037//0735-7044.113.6.1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGrath MJ, Campbell KM, Veldman MB, Burton FH: Anxiety in a transgenic mouse model of cortical-limbic neuro-potentiated compulsive behavior. Behav Pharmacol. 1999, 10 (5): 435-443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McGrath MJ, Campbell KM, Parks CR, Burton FH: Glutamatergic drugs exacerbate symptomatic behavior in a transgenic model of comorbid Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain Res. 2000, 877 (1): 23-30. 10.1016/S0006-8993(00)02646-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhuang X, Oosting RS, Jones SR, Gainetdinov PR, Miller GW, Caron MG, Hen R: Hyperactivity and impaired response habituation in hyperdopaminergic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98 (4): 1982-1987. 10.1073/pnas.98.4.1982.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ralph-Williams RJ, Paulus MP, Zhuang X, Hen R, Geyer MA: Valproate attenuates hyperactive and perseverative behaviors in mutant mice with a dysregulated dopamine system. Biol Psychiatry. 2003, 53 (4): 352-359. 10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01489-0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pecina S, Cagniard B, Berridge KC, Aldridge JW, Zhuang X: Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher "wanting" but not "liking" for sweet rewards. J Neurosci. 2003, 23 (28): 9395-9402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berridge KC, Fentress JC, Parr H: Natural syntax rules control action sequence of rats. Behav Brain Res. 1987, 23 (1): 59-68. 10.1016/0166-4328(87)90242-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalueff AV, Tuohimaa P: Grooming analysis algorithm for neurobehavioural stress research. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2004, 13 (3): 151-158. 10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.04.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Richmond G, Sachs BD: Grooming in Norway rats: The development and adult expression of a complex motor pattern. Behav. 1978, 75: 82-96.Google Scholar
- McNamara FN, Clifford JJ, Tighe O, Kinsella A, Drago J, Fuchs S, Croke DT, Waddington JL: Phenotypic, ethologically based resolution of spontaneous and D(2)-like vs D(1)-like agonist-induced behavioural topography in mice with congenic D(3) dopamine receptor "knockout". Synapse. 2002, 46 (1): 19-31. 10.1002/syn.10108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coscia EM, Fentress JC: Neurological dysfunction expressed in the grooming behavior of developing Weaver mutant mice. Behavior Genetics. 1993, 23 (6): 533-541. 10.1007/BF01068144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bolivar VJ, Danilchuk W, Fentress JC: Separation of activation and pattern in grooming development of weaver mice. Behav Brain Res. 1996, 75 (1–2): 49-58. 10.1016/0166-4328(96)00156-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Packard MG, Knowlton BJ: Learning and memory functions of the basal ganglia. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2002, 25 (1): 563-593. 10.1146/annurev.neuro.25.112701.142937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Doyon J, Laforce R, Bouchard G, Gaudreau D, Roy J, Poirier M, Bedard PJ, Bedard F, Bouchard JP: Role of the striatum, cerebellum and frontal lobes in the automatization of a repeated visuomotor sequence of movements. Neuropsychologia. 1998, 36 (7): 625-641. 10.1016/S0028-3932(97)00168-1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saint-Cyr JA: Frontal-striatal circuit functions: Context, sequence, and consequence. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2003, 9 (1): 103-127. 10.1017/S1355617703910125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Graybiel AM: The basal ganglia and chunking of action repertoires. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 1998, 70 (1–2): 119-136. 10.1006/nlme.1998.3843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greenberg N, MacLean PD, Ferguson JL: Role of the paleostriatum in species-typical display behavior of the lizard (Anolis carolinensis). Brain Res. 1979, 172 (2): 229-241. 10.1016/0006-8993(79)90535-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brown LL, Schneider JS, Lidsky TI: Sensory and cognitive functions of the basal ganglia. Cur Opin Neurobiol. 1997, 7 (2): 157-163. 10.1016/S0959-4388(97)80003-7.Google Scholar
- Knowlton BJ, Mangels JA, Squire LR: A neostriatal habit learning system in humans. Science. 1996, 273 (5280): 1399-1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Szechtman H, Woody E: Obsessive-compulsive disorder as a disturbance of security motivation. Psychol Rev. 2004, 111 (1): 111-127. 10.1037/0033-295X.111.1.111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ho AK, Bradshaw JL, Cunnington R, Phillips JG, Iansek R: Sequence heterogeneity in Parkinsonian speech. Brain & Language. 1998, 64 (1): 122-145. 10.1006/brln.1998.1959.Google Scholar
- Toates F, Coschug-Toates O: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. 2002, London: Class publishingGoogle Scholar
- Rapoport JL, Wise SP: Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence for basal ganglia dysfunction. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988, 24 (3): 380-384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hollander E, Liebowitz MR, DeCaria CM: Conceptual and methodological issues in studies of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette's disorders. Psychiat Dev. 1989, 7 (4): 267-296.Google Scholar
- Goodman WK, McDougle CJ, Price LH, Riddle MA, Pauls DL, Leckman JF: Beyond the serotonin hypothesis: a role for dopamine in some forms of obsessive compulsive disorder?. J Clin Psychiat. 1990, 51 (Suppl): 36-43. discussion 55-38.Google Scholar
- Ridley RM: The psychology of perseverative and stereotyped behaviour. Prog Neurobiol. 1994, 44 (2): 221-231. 10.1016/0301-0082(94)90039-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McDougle CJ: Update on pharmacologic management of OCD: agents and augmentation. J Clin Psychiat. 1997, 58 (Suppl 12): 11-17.Google Scholar
- Rapoport JL: Le "spectre obsessionnel-compulsif": Un concept utile?. Encephale. 1994, 20 Spec No 4: 677-680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Albin RL, Young AB, Penney JB: The functional anatomy of disorders of the basal ganglia. Trends Neurosci. 1995, 18 (2): 63-64. 10.1016/0166-2236(95)93872-U.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Luthi-Carter R, Strand A, Peters NL, Solano SM, Hollingsworth ZR, Menon AS, Frey AS, Spektor BS, Penney EB, Schilling G, et al: Decreased expression of striatal signaling genes in a mouse model of Huntington's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2000, 9 (9): 1259-1271. 10.1093/hmg/9.9.1259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spektor BS, Miller DW, Hollingsworth ZR, Kaneko YA, Solano SM, Johnson JM, Penney JB, Young AB, Luthi-Carter R: Differential D1 and D2 receptor-mediated effects on immediate early gene induction in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002, 102 (1–2): 118-128. 10.1016/S0169-328X(02)00216-4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McDougle CJ, Goodman WK, Price LH: The pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1993, 26 (Suppl 1): 24-29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poyurovsky M, Bergman Y, Shoshani D, Schneidman M, Weizman A: Emergence of obsessive – compulsive symptoms and tics during clozapine withdrawal. Clin Neuropharm. 1998, 21 (2): 97-100.Google Scholar
- Fentress JC: Expressive contexts, fine structure, and central mediation of rodent grooming. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988, 525: 18-26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.