Identification of candidate drug male reproductive gene targets. a Diagrammatic representation of overall methodology used to identify reproductive tract-specific candidate genes in humans (720 genes) and in mice (1062 genes). The maximum gene expression was determined across all the non-reproductive tissue samples for each gene for a reproductive tissue or cell sample of interest. Genes were then filtered for significance using a false discovery rate (FDR) of less than or equal to 0.05 based on the differential gene expression analysis for the non-reproductive tissue with maximum gene expression and reproductive tissue or cell sample of interest. Genes that passed the FDR filter were filtered such that the average TPM expression value of the maximum expressing non-reproductive tissue was less than or equal to 1.0 TPM and the average TPM expression value of the reproductive tissue or cell of interest was greater than or equal to 10.0 TPM. b Diagrammatic representation of the number of human and mouse candidate genes in terms of (1) the number of orthologs in the opposite species, (2) the number of genes previously or not previously identified in a prior transcriptomics-based drug target report, (3) the availability and phenotypic outcome of any reported mouse models, and (4) the number of novel genes without a reported mouse model congruent across both species. The main value in each bubble represents the total number of candidate genes identified regardless of tissue or cell identified in. The numbers in parentheses comprise the total number of candidate genes that are either epididymis-specific or specific to testis and epididymis, but not testis and/or testis cell-specific only.