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Table 1 Overview and abbreviations of anatomical structures associated with the zebra finch syrinx.

From: The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

English term Latin terma Brief anatomical description Figure(s)
bronchial half-ring (B1, B2, B3) cartilago bronchosyringealis (App. Resp. 42) Paired, ossified, irregularly-shaped cartilage. Located at the rostral end of the primary bronchus. Modified bronchial cartilage. 2, Additional file 1, 4
bronchial half-ring (B4, B5...) cartilago bronchialis (App. Resp. 52) Paired, ossified, C-shaped cartilage. Forms the lateral, ventral and dorsal walls of the primary bronchus. 2, Additional file 1, 4
clavicular air sac (CAS) saccus clavicularis (App. Resp. 81) Unpaired, air-filled sac surrounding the syrinx. Located in-between the clavicles. 12
clavicular air sac membrane (CASM) membrana sacci clavicularii (present study) Membrane surrounding clavicular air sac and interbronchial foramen. Provides attachment for various muscles. 8, 9, 12
deep dorsal syringeal muscle (DDS) musculus syringealis dorsalis profundus (present study) Paired muscle. Attaches to tympanum and to bronchial half-ring B2. Additional file 2, 8
deep ventral tracheobronchial muscle (DVTB) musculus tracheobronchialis ventralis profundus (present study) Paired muscle. Attaches to tympanum and to bronchial half-ring B3. Additional file 2, 8
dorsal syringeal muscle musculus syringealis dorsalis (App. Resp. 51) This muscle is divided into three parts: the medial dorsal syringeal muscle, the lateral dorsal syringeal muscle and the deep dorsal syringeal muscle. Additional file 2, 8
dorsal tracheobronchial muscle (DTB) musculus tracheobronchialis dorsalis (App. Resp. 51) Paired muscle. Attaches to clavicular air sac membrane and to bronchial half-ring B2. Additional file 2, 8
interbronchial foramen (IBF) foramen interbronchiale (App. Resp. 46) Unpaired, air-filled sac. Located between the bifurcation of the trachea and the interbronchial ligament. A diverticulum of the clavicular air sac. 6, 9
interbronchial ligament (IBL) ligamentum interbronchiale (App. Resp. 46) Unpaired connective tissue element. Located caudal to the bifurcation of the trachea as well as the interbronchial foramen. Connects left and right primary bronchus. 7 - 9
lateral dorsal cartilage (LDC) cartilago dorsalis lateralis (present study) Paired cartilaginous pad. Embedded dorsally within the medial tympaniform membrane. 7, Additional file 2
lateral dorsal syringeal muscle (LDS) musculus syringealis dorsalis lateralis (present study) Paired muscle. Attaches to tracheal rings T3 and T4 as well as to bronchial half-ring B1. Additional file 2, 8
lateral labium (LL) labium laterale (App. Resp. 49) Paired connective tissue element. Projects from the medial part of bronchial half-ring B3 into the airway of the syrinx. 7, Additional file 2
lateral ventral cartilage (LVC) cartilago ventralis lateralis (present study) Paired cartilaginous pad. Ventrally continuous with bronchial half-ring B3. Provides attachment for the superficial ventral tracheobronchial muscle. 7, Additional file 2
medial dorsal cartilage (MDC) cartilago dorsalis medialis (present study) Paired cartilaginous pad. Embedded dorsally within the medial tympaniform membrane. Provides attachment for the medial dorsal syringeal muscle. 7, Additional file 2
medial dorsal syringeal muscle (MDS) musculus syringealis dorsalis medialis (present study) Paired muscle. Attaches to tracheal rings T3 and T4 as well as to the medial dorsal cartilage. Additional file 2, 8
medial labium (ML) labium mediale (App. Resp. 49) Paired connective tissue element. Projects from the lateral wall of the pessulus into the airway of the syrinx. Forms a tissue continuum with the medial tympaniform membrane. 7, Additional file 2
medial tympaniform membrane (MTM) membrana tympaniformis medialis (App. Resp. 48) Paired connective tissue element. Suspended between the free ends of bronchial half-rings B1, B2 and B3. Forms a tissue continuum with the medial labium. 7
medial ventral cartilage (MVC) cartilago ventralis medialis (present study) Paired cartilaginous pad. Ventrally continuous with bronchial half-ring B2. Embedded ventrally within the medial tympaniform membrane. Provides attachment for the ventral syringeal muscle. 7, Additional file 2, 10
medial vibratory mass (MVM) corpus vibratorius medialis (present study) Paired tissue continuum consisting of medial labium and medial tympaniform membrane. 7
pessulus (PES) pessulus (App. Resp. 43) Unpaired, ossified cartilage. Located at the caudal end of the tympanum. Derived from the fusion of two bronchial half-rings. 2, 3
primary bronchus (PBR) bronchus primarius (App. Resp. 52) Paired tube composed of soft and hard tissue. Connects the trachea with the secondary bronchus that is located within the lungs. 6
short tracheobronchial muscle (STB) musculus tracheobronchialis brevis (App. Resp. 51) Paired muscle. Attaches to tympanum and to bronchial half-ring B2. Additional file 2, 8
sternotracheal muscle (ST) musculus sternotrachealis (App. Resp. 50) Paired muscle. Attaches to tracheal ring T1 and to a protrusion of the sternum close to the coracoid. Additional file 2, 8
superficial ventral tracheobronchial muscle (SVTB) musculus tracheobronchialis ventralis superficialis (present study) Paired muscle. Attaches to tracheal rings T4 and T5 as well as to bronchial half-ring B3. Additional file 2, 8
trachea (TRA) trachea (App. Resp. 36) Unpaired tube composed of numerous tracheal rings connecting the larynx to the lungs. 1, 2, 6, 10
tracheal ring (T1, T2...) cartilago trachealis (App. Resp. 36) Unpaired, ossified cartilage. The trachea is composed of numerous tracheal rings. 2, 3
tracheolateral muscle (TL) musculus tracheolateralis (App. Resp. 50) Paired muscle. Forms an extended band along the trachea. Attaches caudally to the syrinx and rostrally to the larynx. 9
tympanum (TYM) tympanum (App. Resp. 39) Unpaired, ossified cylinder. Located at the caudal end of the trachea. Formed by the close apposition or fusion of four to six tracheal rings and one paired bronchial half-ring. 2, 3
ventral syringeal muscle (VS) musculus syringealis ventralis (App. Resp. 51) Paired muscle. Attaches to tympanum and to the medial ventral cartilage. Additional file 2, 8
ventral tracheobronchial muscle (not used here) musculus tracheobronchialis ventralis (App. Resp. 51) This muscle is divided into two parts: the superficial ventral tracheobronchial muscle and the deep ventral tracheobronchial muscle. -
  1. Structural components are presented in alphabetical order. The abbreviations of the English terms provided here are used throughout the manuscript. aApp. Resp. refers to the chapter Apparatus Respiratorius by King [72] in Baumel and colleagues [130], while the numbers indicate the respective section of that chapter.